SAF / E-KEROSENE
If renewable energy (e.g. from Solar, Wind or Hydro) is used to generate electricity for electrolysis of water then the green hydrogen can be generated without any harmful emissions. Our ability to produce large quantities of green hydrogen will play a major role in providing an alternative to fossil fuels as we transition to low emissions and work towards a clean, healthy environment. Through the use of green hydrogen, we can foresee a sustainable future in handling this increased demand.
Green hydrogen offers better ways to decarbonise a range of hard-to-abate sectors – including long- haul transport, chemicals, and even food processing – where it is proving difficult to significantly reduce emissions. It can also help improve air quality and strengthen energy security. Technologies already available today enable green hydrogen to produce, store, move and use energy in different ways. Its production is carbon free by using 100% renewable energies instead of fossil resources.
It can be transported as a pressurised gas or in liquid form by pipelines, ships or trucks, much like liquefied natural gas (LNG). It can be transformed into electricity and methane to feed industry and power houses, and into fuels for cars, trucks, ships and planes. Hydrogen and hydrogen- based fuels can transport energy from renewables over long distances – from regions with abundant renewable resources to energy-hungry clients thousands of kilometres away.
For the production of one tonne of hydrogen, conventional natural gas reforming releases about 10 tonnes of CO2, i.e. almost 50% of the direct CO2 emissions of a refinery (from various sources, a technically determined fluctuation range of 8.96-12.60 tonnes of CO2 per tonne of hydrogen can be discharged). If renewable energies are used to supply the electrolysers, the entire production path is almost completely emission-free.
By volume, LH2 contains a third of the energy of the same volumes of methane.
Volumetric Energy Density
Gravimetric Specific Energy (LHV)
- 7.6 Syngas
- 11.5 Diesel
- 12.0 Gasoline
- 10.6 – 13.1 Natural Gas
- 13.9 Methane
- 33.3 Hydrogen
- 2.8 Gaseous Hydrogen
- 10 – 14 Natural Gas
- 750 CGH2 300Bar
- 2.350 Liquid Hydrogen (-253°C)
- 3.180 Metal Hydride
- 10.000 Gasoline
USAGE OF HYDROGEN
CO2-free production enables companies to save costs on CO2-fees and certificates. Carbon free hydrogen enables companies to support fight against climate change without additional investment needs.
Fuel cells convert energy stored in hydrogen to electricity in order to run an electric motor. This concept is already proven in busses, trains, trucks and cars. It will be applied in ferries and planes in the near future.
„nothing in the world is as powerful
as an idea whose time has come.“
– Victor Hugo –
GREEN AMMONIA (NH3)
Just like hydrogen, ammonia is not a primary energy source. It is used as a mean to store and carry energy. It can be stored as a liquid at a moderate pressure of 17 bar. At this pressure, ammonia has an energy density of 13.77 MJ/L. Ammonia can be used in the manufacture of fertilizer, and as a feedstock for other chemicals (urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphate, etc.). Since our green hydrogen‘s purity is > 99.99 % for use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) vehicles and followed by the transport of ammonia to the end-use site, ammonia is cracked on a catalyst at 400°C followed by an integrated hydrogen separation via a metal membrane reactor.
Together with our partners, we process non-conventional short-chain hydrocarbons into syngas via Catalytic Partial Oxidation (ATR) with a high feedstock flexibility; followed by the conversion of the produced syngas to methanol in two sequential isothermal reactor stages and ended by the methanol distillation process. In collaboration with our partners, we contribute to the production of bio-methanol in a large-scale anaerobic digester to convert organic waste to biogas (methane and CO2). A mixture of gases from organic waste materials is converted to methanol in a conventional steam-reforming/water-gas shift reaction followed by high-pressure catalytic methanol synthesis. Biomass sources are preferable for bio-methanol than for bioethanol because bioethanol is a high-cost and low-yield product. Methanol is produced from hydrogen-carbon oxide mixtures by means of the catalytic reaction of carbon monoxide and some carbon dioxide with hydrogen. Bio-methanol is chemically identical to conventional methanol. This is a promising alternative, with a diversity of fuel applications with proven environmental, economic, and consumer benefits.
Hydrogen is produced by means of water electrolysis. The green CO₂ is recovered from biogas plants, flue gas or exhaust gas. The electricity required for production comes from renewable sources such as hydropower or wind energy.
SUSTAINABLE AVIATION FUEL (SAF)
RENEWABLE NATURAL GAS (CH4)
Renewable natural gas (RNG) is a clean form of biogas that is 98 % methane – a green gas which can be used interchangeably with conventional fossil-fuel natural gas. In the case of vehicle fuel or for grid injection, it is important to have a high energy content in the gas. The energy content of biogas is in direct proportion to the methane concentration and by removing carbon dioxide in the upgrading process, the energy content of the gas is increased. Together with our partners, we apply techniques for biogas upgrading in the production of RNG in a large-scale anaerobic plant to offer the following benefits:
· Net zero emissions
· Ability to capture methane emissions from other processes such as organic waste
· Interchangeably with existing natural gas usage.